The people that were so ordinary that, with few exceptions, they were readily absorbed into civil society after the killings and peacefully lived out their unremarkable lives.
See Copyright for details. Interpretations Milgram offered two theories: This shows he was in the Agentic State because he saw himself as an agent of Hitler when helping him to complete the Final Solution.
As the results of his first pilot studies came in, Milgram was astonished to find that participants regularly followed the experimenter all the way to the bitter end.
Real Life Example of Obedience Adolf Eichmann was executed in for his part in organizing the Holocaust, in which six million Jewish people, as well as gypsies, communists and trade unionists were transported to death camps and murdered in Nazi Germany and surrounding countries under Nazi control.
Obedience is ingrained in us as children as a virtue. Nor were they identified as sadists at home or in their social environment.
Because they wanted to. University of Minnesota Press, If at any time the subject "teacher" wanted to stop the experiment, he was given a succession of verbal prods by the experimenter, in this order: Kramer Developmental Trajectories Research reviewed in the previous section indicated that moral heroes have integrated the typically oppositional motives of Milgram s concept of agentic shift and communion, by appropriating agentic means in service to communal goals.
Nor am I interested in the middle-echelon perpetrators, the faceless bureaucrats who made implementation of those initiatives possible. In reality, though, psychological explanations are more probabilistic than deterministic.
An example of this is when faced with danger, most people will turn away to try and avoid conflict. Therefore, the person giving the order has a higher status than the person receiving the order. Milgram had identified a phenomenon that would shock the world. In short, the majority of perpetrators of extraordinary evil are not distinguished by background, personality, or previous political affiliation or behavior as having been men or women unusually likely or fit to be genocidal executioners.
Ultimately, being aware of our own capacity for evil—and the evolutionary, individual, social and situational constraints that foster it—is the best safeguard we can have against future genocide. Is to Explain to Condone? Evaluation of the self is irrelevant since actions do not stem from personal motives.
In short, where they existed, perpetrators characterized by extraordinary psychopathology were far too few to account for the litany of atrocities that occurred in the name of the Third Reich.
The current consensus is that Milgram identified a phenomenon of supreme importance, which half a century later — and in the light of massacres in Bosnia, Rwanda, the Sudan, Syria and Libya — is sadly as relevant as ever. First, I will briefly review the work of those who argue for the extraordinary origins of extraordinary evil.
The study lacked ecological validity as being ordered to give electric shocks during a memory experiment is an unrealistic situation. Rather, I am interested in the rank-and-file killers. These tendencies represent evolved social capacities that are at the core of human nature.
Agentic State Gap-fill exercise Fill in all the gaps, then press "Check" to check your answers. Once this critical shift of viewpoint has occurred in the person, all of the essential features of obedience follow".
Stanley Milgram, Obedience to Authority: There seems to be something about the nature of the collective—a small band of marauders, an army battalion, a mob, a social or political organization, an office staff, a nation—that brings out our worst tendencies.
Conversely, it explains, in part, why genocides and mass killings are relatively uncommon in stable democracies where such extreme power differentials are kept in check. These Germans did not view their actions as criminal nor did they shrink from opportunities to inflict suffering, humiliation and death— openly, knowingly and zealously—upon their victims.
Gustave Le Bon, The Crowd: Nazi soldiers were, for example, given their orders in prison camps during war time. Each subject was told that his task was to help another subject like himself learn a list of word pairs. The various processes involved in the dehumanization of the victims.Obedience is a form of social influence where an individual acts in response to a direct order from another individual, who is usually an authority figure.
It is assumed that without such an order the person would not have acted in this way.
Milgram later endorsed Arendt’s concept of the “banal - ity of evil”, arguing that it came “closer to the truth than one might dare imagine” ( 6). Describe Agency Theory using appropriate terminology. Making an agentic shift is a coping mechanism. Milgram’s Agency theory can offer a credible explanation for the actions of war criminals who claim they were ‘only following orders’ such as the My Lai massacre in Vietnam.
agentic: Social cognition theory perspective in which people are producers as well as products of social systems. adj. Milgram's theory about the agentic state which is the psychological state the obedient subject is in when he or she is obeying authority.
the agentic style has been more valued and represents "masculine" traits. Making an agentic shift is a coping mechanism. Cognitive psychologists would say we have developed a schema for avoiding confrontation. Milgram’s Agency theory can offer a credible explanation for the actions of war criminals who claim they were ‘only following orders’ such.
Home > A Level and IB > Psychology > Evaluation Of Agency Theory. Anti-social implications- this theory could be used negatively resulting in manipulation into the agentic state (use knowledge to make people do negative things) Evaluation.
Milgram's Agency Theory Evaluation.Download